Topic Area 2 - Aero/Heat Transfer; Sub-Topic 2.3: Environments in Turbines Operating with Syngas and High Hydrogen Fuels from Coal
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Federal Grant Title:
TOPIC AREA 2 - AERO/HEAT TRANSFER; SUB-TOPIC 2.3: ENVIRONMENTS IN TURBINES OPERATING WITH SYNGAS AND HIGH HYDROGEN FUELS FROM COAL
Public and State controlled institutions of higher education Private institutions of higher education
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NOTE: This descriptive area provides an overview of Technical Topic Area 2: Sub-Topic 2.3: Environments in Turbines Operating with Syngas and High Hydrogen Fuels from Coal only. YOU MUST READ THE ENTIRE FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT DOCUMENT FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, EVALUATION CRITERIA AND INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE AN APPLICATION UNDER Technical Sub-Topic Areas. Please scroll to the bottom of this page to access the Funding Opportunity Announcement. Topic Area 2 - Aero/Heat Transfer Low heating values typical of syngas and injection of diluents (to control combustion temperatures and therefore thermal NOx) have resulted in higher (up to 14%) mass flows through the turbine hot section of IGCC turbines than for the same model turbines operated with natural gas. This produces 20-25% higher turbine output power compared to natural gas but also tends to increase the heat transfer to the hot section vanes and blades. Where steam is used as a diluent to control NOx, the higher heat transfer properties for steam compared to air tends to additionally increase the heat load to hot section components. Accordingly, current IGCC turbines have been operated at reduced firing temperatures to maintain hot gas parts at temperatures similar to those of the same model turbines operated with natural gas. The progression from current syngas to HHC fuels produced from coal syngas along with the usual increase in turbine inlet temperature through time to increase performance (power and efficiency) will tend to produce additional heat loads and aero/cooling requirements for hot section components. Also, limited turbine operation experience and past rig tests with alternate fuels containing ash impurities have shown that corrosion and deposition can be drastically higher for increased inlet temperatures because of higher levels of molten phases in the flow stream. Although increased gas cleanup in future plants will probably significantly reduce impurities entering the turbine, current experience has shown that even highly filtered ambient air can produce significant deposition (fouling) in compressors when molten phases exist at flow path conditions. Consequently, additional research is needed to define the aero/heat transfer environments and accommodate higher heat loads under potential deposition/corrosion conditions in the hot section flow paths of turbines operating with HHC fuels derived from syngas. Sub-Topic 2.3: Environments in Turbines Operating with Syngas and High Hydrogen Fuels from Coal (DE-PS26-08NT00165-2C) For turbines operating with HHC fuels from gasified coal, relatively little is know about aero/heat transfer and impurity environments in their hot sections. The levels of water vapor in the hot section flow path affects both heat transfer to the expander airfoils and can increase the degradation (e.g., oxidation) of flow path materials. SOx and impurities that pass the plant cleanup systems can not only contribute to materials corrosion but also deposition on airfoils and their end walls that affect aerodynamic losses and heat transfer to their cooled surfaces and material temperatures. The goal of this task is thermal-chemical analyses to better define the environments in the hot section of turbines that operate with HHC fuels produced from coal gasification. This information can be used as input for the aero/thermal design of these turbines, aid in interpretation of aero/thermal and materials degradation experience in IGCC turbines, and also provide input conditions for aero/thermal and materials evaluations in other projects. The thermal-chemical analyses should consider non-equilibrium effects, for example by, eliminating candidate reactions with rate constants that would not enable the reaction products to be formed in the short residence time of the combustor and expander flow path. Input to the thermal-chemical analyses includes composition and flow rates of the fuel, oxidant (air), and diluents (steam and/or nitrogen) into a representative turbine combustor. The input fuel composition includes baseline levels/composition data for impurities (sulfur, ash elements) measured in the syngas after gas cleanup at a syngas plant. After a baseline analysis, these parameters should be varied to represent a range of fuel feedstock and levels of syngas cleanup. Outputs from the thermal-chemical analyses are the composition, phases, and heat transfer properties for combustion products in the temperature/pressure regime in the stages of the turbine hot section. This includes the composition, levels, and state (gaseous, liquid, or solid) of impurities that could pass through the hot section flow path after combustion of the fuel. Levels and composition of liquid phase components in the turbine flow path are particularly important because molten phases are typically the primary contributors to component corrosion and are usually required for significant deposition to occur. Variation of the levels and composition of impurities (sulfur and ash elements) from the baseline values in the fuel gas should be explored to identify levels that reduce the potential for molten phases to exist in the hot section flow path and thereby provide insight for coal ash specifications or gas cleanup specifications to alleviate hot section corrosion and deposition. The analyses should also evaluate the effect of turbine inlet temperature on levels and composition of flow path molten phases to explore the potential for additional molten phases and possible increased corrosion and deposition in future higher inlet temperature (up to 2700 F) turbines operating with HHC fuel derived from syngas.
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