Topic Area 3 - Materials Topics; Sub-Topic 3.2: Degradation of IGCC Turbine TBC's From Deposits
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Federal Grant Title:
TOPIC AREA 3 - MATERIALS TOPICS; SUB-TOPIC 3.2: DEGRADATION OF IGCC TURBINE TBC'S FROM DEPOSITS
Private institutions of higher education Public and State controlled institutions of higher education
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NOTE: This descriptive area provides an overview of Technical Topic Area 3: Sub-Topic 3.2: Degradation of IGCC Turbine TBC's From Deposits only. YOU MUST READ THE ENTIRE FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT DOCUMENT FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, EVALUATION CRITERIA AND INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE AN APPLICATION UNDER Technical Sub-Topic Areas. Please scroll to the bottom of this page to access the Funding Opportunity Announcement. Topic Area 3 - Materials Topics Even though limited IGCC plant data on measured syngas impurities indicate lower levels of critical ash constituents (e.g., Na, K, Ca) than limits from turbine fuel specifications, greater materials degradation (corrosion, erosion, and deposition) has occurred in at least some IGCC plant turbines to date than for the same model turbines operated with conventional fuels such as natural gas. For properly designed and operated syngas cleanup systems, no forced turbine outages resulting from hot section materials degradation associated with syngas appear to be reported at IGCC plants. However, at least in some cases, hot section coatings, vanes, and blades have needed replacement during routine maintenance shutdowns at more frequent intervals than for natural gas fired turbines. For example, analyses of IGCC turbine first rotor blades have shown that, at some locations, surface reactions were radically different in nature and more severe than typically observed in turbines operating with conventional fuels. These areas appeared to experience a combination of sulfidation and oxidation. However, the mechanisms leading to this attack are uncertain because partial pressures of sulfur containing gases in the syngas combustion products do not appear to be as high as required to produce materials sulfidation. Also, Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) in IGCC turbines have experienced deposition and spallation and sometimes needed replacement at more frequent intervals than for natural gas fired turbines. Analyses have indicated that iron oxides (e.g., Fe2O3) have been primary constituents of deposits on the TBC's, which also penetrated into the TBC porosity. The presence of other ash elements (e.g., Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K and sulfate ions) has also been detected. These deposits are different in composition than deposits consisting of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and silicon (CMAS) that have caused past degradation of airborne turbine TBC's. The following sequence of materials research topics are directed to first understanding the nature of degradations to date in IGCC turbines, identifying approaches to alleviate these degradations, and then using these insights as a starting knowledge base for evaluations of materials for turbines using HHC fuels derived from coal gasification. Sub-Topic 3.2: Degradation of IGCC Turbine TBC's From Deposits (DE-PS26-08NT00165-3B) Evaluation of IGCC turbine TBC analyses and syngas impurity analyses described in the literature, interactions with materials experts at turbine OEM companies, and additional university analyses of IGCC turbine parts coated with TBC's (if available) should be explored along with initial laboratory experiments to identify the critical impurities and TBC degradation mechanisms. These evaluations should delineate the relative roles of chemical attack and mechanical effects (e.g., deposit penetration and expansion) from deposits that produced the degradation of TBC's to date in IGCC turbines. Experiments and/or analyses representing the thermal gradient through the turbine TBC's are preferred to represent turbine conditions such as the extent of deposit molten phase penetration into the porous TBC structure. Using the knowledge obtained from evaluation of IGCC turbine TBC degradation and the initial experiments/ evaluations, a second set of experiments should be designed to select candidate TBC's (e.g., APS, EB-PVD, bond coat) and evaluate their relative performance in laboratory tests when exposed to deposits representative of those experienced to date in IGCC turbines. The presence of water vapor potentially can potentially affect the nature and growth rate of the thermally grown oxide scale at the bond coat interface and also sintering of the YSZ coating. Consequently, experiments representative of future systems should explore the effects of deposits representative of those experienced to date in IGCC turbines combined with water vapor at levels representative of the flow-path of higher temperature IGCC turbines (vicinity of 8.5%) and also higher water vapor levels for future turbines operating with HHC fuels (vicinity of 20%).
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