Topic Area 3 - Materials Topics; Sub-Topic 3.3: Effects of Sulfur and Water Vapor on Alloys and Environmental Coatings
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Federal Grant Title:
TOPIC AREA 3 - MATERIALS TOPICS; SUB-TOPIC 3.3: EFFECTS OF SULFUR AND WATER VAPOR ON ALLOYS AND ENVIRONMENTAL COATINGS
Private institutions of higher education Public and State controlled institutions of higher education
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NOTE: This descriptive area provides an overview of Technical Topic Area 3: Sub-Topic 3.3: Effects of Sulfur and Water Vapor on Alloys and Environmental Coatings only. YOU MUST READ THE ENTIRE FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT DOCUMENT FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, EVALUATION CRITERIA AND INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE AN APPLICATION UNDER Technical Sub-Topic Areas. Please scroll to the bottom of this page to access the Funding Opportunity Announcement. Topic Area 3 - Materials Topics Even though limited IGCC plant data on measured syngas impurities indicate lower levels of critical ash constituents (e.g., Na, K, Ca) than limits from turbine fuel specifications, greater materials degradation (corrosion, erosion, and deposition) has occurred in at least some IGCC plant turbines to date than for the same model turbines operated with conventional fuels such as natural gas. For properly designed and operated syngas cleanup systems, no forced turbine outages resulting from hot section materials degradation associated with syngas appear to be reported at IGCC plants. However, at least in some cases, hot section coatings, vanes, and blades have needed replacement during routine maintenance shutdowns at more frequent intervals than for natural gas fired turbines. For example, analyses of IGCC turbine first rotor blades have shown that, at some locations, surface reactions were radically different in nature and more severe than typically observed in turbines operating with conventional fuels. These areas appeared to experience a combination of sulfidation and oxidation. However, the mechanisms leading to this attack are uncertain because partial pressures of sulfur containing gases in the syngas combustion products do not appear to be as high as required to produce materials sulfidation. Also, Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) in IGCC turbines have experienced deposition and spallation and sometimes needed replacement at more frequent intervals than for natural gas fired turbines. Analyses have indicated that iron oxides (e.g., Fe2O3) have been primary constituents of deposits on the TBC's, which also penetrated into the TBC porosity. The presence of other ash elements (e.g., Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K and sulfate ions) has also been detected. These deposits are different in composition than deposits consisting of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and silicon (CMAS) that have caused past degradation of airborne turbine TBC's. The following sequence of materials research topics are directed to first understanding the nature of degradations to date in IGCC turbines, identifying approaches to alleviate these degradations, and then using these insights as a starting knowledge base for evaluations of materials for turbines using HHC fuels derived from coal gasification. Sub-Topic 3.3: Effects of Sulfur and Water Vapor on Alloys and Environmental Coatings (DE-PS26-08NT00165-3C) Future turbines that operate with HHC fuels might operate with hot section gases containing even higher water vapor levels (up to 25%) and limited gaseous sulfur (e.g., SO2) levels. Because water vapor and sulfur affect the formation of oxide scales, there are likely bounds on combinations of water vapor, SOx, and surface temperatures for protective oxide scales to form on turbine materials. Consequently, experiments and analyses are needed to identify the acceptable operating ranges for SOx, and surface temperatures for current turbine alloys and environmental coatings for water vapor levels ranging up to 25%.
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